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Sources Used

Updated 19 Nov 2021 (What’s New?)
Copyright © 2014–2022 by Stan Brown, BrownMath.com

Summary: Here are full citations for all the books, articles, and Web pages that I refer to in the textbook. (I’m following the format suggested by chapters 15 and 16 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 13th Edition.)

Aldrich, John. 2012.
Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm
American Social History Project of CUNY and Center for History and New Media of George Mason University. n.d.
Landon in a Landslide: The Poll That Changed Polling. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5168/
AVMA, American Veterinary Medical Association. 2014.
US Pet Ownership Statistics. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 from https://www.avma.org/resources/reports-statistics/market-research-statistics-us-pet-ownership-2012
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2013.
Statistical Language—Types of Errors. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/D3310114.nsf/home/statistical+language+-+types+of+errors
Benson, Herbert, et al. 2005.
Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in Cardiac Bypass Patients — A Multi-Center Randomized Trial of Uncertainty and Certainty of Receiving Intercessory Prayer. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140719205156/https://www.templeton.org/pdfs/press_releases/​060407STEP_paper.pdf (PDF)
Benson, Herbert, et al. 2006.
Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: A multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer [abstract]. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0002870305006496
Blood Types. 2009.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://stanfordbloodcenter.org/donate-blood/blood-donation-facts/blood-types/
Bock, Dave. n.d.
Is That an Assumption or a Condition? Retrieved 2021-11-19 from https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/courses/ap-statistics/classroom-resources/assumption-or-condition
Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr., et al. 1990.
Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.missouri.edu/~segerti/1000H/Bouchard.pdf (PDF)
Bradford Hill, Sir Austin. 1965.
"The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?" Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58 (1965): 295–300. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/hill
Brown, Stan. 2018.
How to Convert Units of Measurement. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://BrownMath.com/bsci/convert.htm
Bulmer, M. G. 1979.
Principles of Statistics. Dover.
CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014.
Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140821030149/https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/​basic_info/screening/guidelines.htm
Census Bureau, United States. 2014a.
Educational Attainment: CPS Historical Time Series Tables. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140812084707/https://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/​education/data/cps/historical/index.html
Census Bureau, United States. 2014b.
New York Quick Facts. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140909195242/https://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/​36000.html
Classic Polling Surprises. 2004.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20040819030531/https://www.studyworksonline.com/cda/content/​new_worksheet/0,,EXP545_NAV2-76_SWK543,00.shtml
Clustering Illusion. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clustering_illusion
Correlation and Dependence. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Correlation
Dabes, Joe, and Carol Janik. 1999.
Statistics Manual. Tompkins Cortland Community College.
Dallal, Gerald E. 2002.
Is Statistics Hard? Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.jerrydallal.com/LHSP/hard.htm
DeVeaux, Richard D., Paul F. Velleman, and David E. Bock. 2009.
Intro Stats. 3d ed. Pearson Addison Wesley.
DiscovertheOdds .com. 2014.
What Are the Odds Of Being Struck By Lightning? Retrieved 16 Nov 2017 from https://discovertheodds.com/what-are-the-odds-of-being-struck-by-lightning/
Dutton, Sarah, et al. 2013.
9 in 10 Back Universal Gun Background Checks. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/9-in-10-back-universal-gun-background-checks/
Empirical Relation between Mean, Median, and Mode. n.d.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pinkmonkey.com/studyguides/subjects/stats/chap4/s0404601.asp
Experian plc. 2012.
Number of Older Vehicles on the Road in the United States Increased by More than 17 Million Since 2009. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 from https://www.experianplc.com/media/latest-news/2012/number-of-older-vehicles-on-the-road-in-the-united-states-increased-by-more-than-17/
(Many thanks to TC3 librarian Barbara Kobritz for finding the original link for me.)
Experimental Design in Statistics. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://stattrek.com/experiments/experimental-design.aspx
Fairleigh Dickinson University. 2011.
Some News Leaves People Knowing Less. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://publicmind.fdu.edu/2011/knowless/ (PDF)
Finite and Infinite Population. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.emathzone.com/tutorials/basic-statistics/finite-and-infinite-population.html
Freedman, David, Robert Pisani, and Roger Purves. 2007.
Statistics. 4th ed. Norton.
Freshman Twenty. 2004.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=freshman%20twenty
Gigerenzer, Gerd. 2002.
Calculated Risks. Simon & Schuster.
Gilovich, Thomas, Robert Vallone, and Amos Tversky. 1985.
“The Hot Hand in Basketball: On the Misperception of Random Sequences”. Cognitive Psychology 17(1985): 295–314. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://home.cs.colorado.edu/~mozer/Teaching/syllabi/7782/readings/​gilovich%20vallone%20tversky.pdf (PDF)
Goleman, Daniel. 1986.
Major Personality Study Finds That Traits Are Mostly Inherited. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.nytimes.com/1986/12/02/science/major-personality-study-finds-that-traits-are-mostly-inherited.html
Gosset, William Sealy (“Student”). 1908.
The Probable Error of a Mean. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/histstat/student.pdf (PDF)
Illusory Superiority: “Driving Ability”. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Wobegon_effect#Driving_ability
Introduction to Polling. n.d.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20051223051413/https://www.pages.drexel.edu/~pa34/​ptn1.htm#_ftn1
Ioannidis, John P. A. 2005.
Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1182327/
Johnson, Robert, and Patricia Kuby. 2003.
Just the Essentials of Elementary Statistics. 3d ed. Brooks/Cole.
Johnson, Robert, and Patricia Kuby. 2004.
Elementary Statistics. 9th ed. Thomson.
Keogh, Daniel [TheProfessorFunk]. 2011.
The Strange Powers of the Placebo Effect. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfRVCaA5o18 (video)
Kuulasmaa, Kari, Hans-Werner Hense, and Hanna Tolonen. 1998.
Quality Assessment of Data on Blood Pressure in the WHO MONICA Project — Table 8: Mean and standard deviation of blood pressure. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.thl.fi/publications/monica/bp/bpqa.htm
Kuzma, Jan W., and Stephen E. Bohnenblust. 2005.
Basic Statistics for the Health Sciences. 5th ed. McGraw Hill.
Lane, David M. 2010.
Percentiles. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://legacy.cnx.org/content/m10805/latest/
Lane, David M. 2013.
HyperStat Online — Chapter 9: Logic of Hypothesis Testing. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/logic_hypothesis.html
Mackowiak, Philip A., Steven S. Wasserman, and Myron M. Levine. 1992.
A Critical Appraisal of 98.6°F, the Upper Limit of the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich [abstract]. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1302471/
The Math Forum @ Drexel. 2002.
Defining Quartiles. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20190717142250/https://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/​60969.html
The Math Forum @ Drexel. 2003.
Difference of Two Proportions in Statistics. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20181018100645/https://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/​68356.html
Mathematical Models. n.d.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/mathematical-models.html
Mendelian Inheritance. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendelian_inheritance
Michailides, George. n.d.a.
Jury Selection. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140427135403/http://www.stat.ucla.edu/cases/jury/
Michailides, George. n.d.b.
Swain vs Alabama. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20110107191447/http://www.stat.ucla.edu/cases/swain/
Middleton, Michael R. n.d.
Better Histograms Using Excel. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20150322093559/http://www.treeplan.com/download/Better-Histograms-Using-Excel-2003.pdf (PDF)
Misleading Graph: “Improper Scaling”. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Misleading_graph#Improper_scaling
Moore, David. 2003.
Re: P Value for Kids? Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.mail-archive.com/edstat@lists.ncsu.edu/msg04957.html
Moulton, Samuel T. n.d.
Probable Error of a Mean, The (“Student”) [Biometrika, 6, 1-25]. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140309054729/http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/~moulton/​probable_error_mean.pdf (PDF)
NHTSA, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, US Department of Transportation. 2008.
Average Fuel Economy Standards: Passenger Cars and Light Trucks: Model Years 2011–2015. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Rulemaking/Rules/Associated%20Files/CAFE_11-15_NPRM_April_21.pdf (PDF)
NICB, National Insurance Crime Bureau. 2013.
NICB’s Hot Wheels: Popular 10 Most Stolen Vehicles List Gets a Makeover. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20150629153824/http://www.nicb.org/newsroom/news-releases/hot-wheels-2012
O’Halloran, Sharyn. n.d.
Statistics and Quantitative Analysis U4320: Lecture 11 : Path Diagrams. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/U4320y-003/client_edit/Lecture11.ppt (PowerPoint)
Parker-Pope, Tara. 2007.
How Scared Should We Be? Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/31/how-scared-should-we-be/
(The table is somewhat confusing, giving lifetime risk of 1 in 60,453, but footnotes explain that is the 2003 figure for shark attacks, not fatal attacks, divided by 77.6. Multiplying back 77.6×60,453 gives a 2003 probability of shark attack of about 1 in 4,691,000.)
Paulos, John Allen. 2004.
A Mathematician Plays the Stock Market. Basic Books.
Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation. 2001.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20161105233239/http://www.mhhe.com/socscience/intro/cafe/​common/stat/cstats03.mhtml
See “Learning Check #18” at the bottom.
Pew Research Center. 2013a.
Half of Parents with Young Children Read to Them Every Day. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140427024337/https://www.pewresearch.org/daily-number/half-of-parents-with-young-children-read-to-them-every-day/
Pew Research Center. 2013b.
Obama Job Approval Holds Steady, Economic Views Improve. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2013/06/19/obama-job-approval-holds-steady-economic-views-improve/
Pew Research Center. 2013c.
US Image Rebounds in Mexico. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2013/04/29/u-s-image-rebounds-in-mexico/
Pew Research Center. 2013d.
A Third of Americans Say They Like Doing Their Income Taxes. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 from https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2013/04/11/a-third-of-americans-say-they-like-doing-their-income-taxes/
Pew Research Center. 2013e.
Tea Party’s Image Turns More Negative. Retrieved 17 Nov 2021 from https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2013/10/16/tea-partys-image-turns-more-negative/
Physicians’ Health Study. 2009.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://phs.bwh.harvard.edu/phs1.htm
Ramsay, Clay, Steven Kull, Evan Lewis, and Stefan Subias. 2010.
Misinformation and the 2010 Election: A Study of the US Electorate. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140823185929/https://worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/​dec10/Misinformation_Dec10_rpt.pdf (PDF)
Roets, Arne, Barry Schwartz, and Yanjun Guan. 2012.
The Tyranny of Choice: A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Maximizing-Satisficing Effects on Well-Being. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://journal.sjdm.org/12/12815/jdm12815.html
Rosenbaum, Mike. n.d.a.
100 Meter Men’s Olympic Medalists. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.liveabout.com/100-meter-mens-olympic-medalists-3259179
100 Meter Women’s Olympic Medalists. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140713135654/https://trackandfield.about.com/od/​sprintsandrelays/qt/olym100women.htm
Ryan, Thomas A., Jr., and Brian L. Joiner. 1976.
Normal Probability Plots and Test for Normality. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20120916160230/https://www.minitab.com/uploadedFiles/​Shared_Resources/Documents/Articles/normal_probability_plots.pdf (PDF)
Scarne, John. 1965.
Scarne on Cards. Rev., augmented ed. Signet (New American Library).
Schilling, Mark F., Ann E. Watkins, and William Watkins. 2002.
“Is Human Height Bimodal?” The American Statistician, August 2002 (56:3) Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140803095708/https://www.biostat.jhsph.edu/bstcourse/​bio751/papers/bimodalHeight.pdf
Schmitz, Matt. 2013.
Honda Accord, Civic Remain Top Targets for Thieves. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from https://www.cars.com/articles/honda-accord-civic-remain-top-targets-for-thieves-1420663056002/
Selection Bias. 2014.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selection_bias
Significant Figures/Digits. 2014.
Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20181023025612/https://mathforum.org/library/drmath/sets/​select/dm_sig_digits.html
Simon, Steve. 1999a.
Degrees of Freedom. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pmean.com/99/df.html
Simon, Steve. 1999b.
R-squared. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pmean.com/99/rsquared.html
Simon, Steve. 2000a.
Alternating Treatments. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pmean.com/00/alternate.html
Simon, Steve. 2000b.
Causation. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pmean.com/00/causation.html
Simon, Steve. 2000c.
Number Needed to Treat. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pmean.com/00/nnt.html
Simon, Steve. 2000d.
Outliers. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pmean.com/00/outliers.html
Simon, Steve. 2001.
Web Polls. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pmean.com/01/webpoll.html
Simon, Steve. 2004.
Degrees of Freedom, Part 2. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pmean.com/04/DegreesFreedom.html
Simon, Steve. 2010.
Confidence Interval with Zero Events. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://www.pmean.com/01/zeroevents.html
Siu, Jason. 2013.
Honda Accord, Civic Most Stolen Vehicles in 2012. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.autoguide.com/auto-news/2013/08/honda-accord-civic-most-stolen-vehicles-in-2012-study.html
Social Security Administration, US. 2010.
Actuarial Life Table: Periodic Life Table, 2010. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.ssa.gov/OACT/STATS/table4c6.html (Select 2010 in the box and click Go.)
Specter, Michael. 2009.
Denialism: How Irrational Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens Our Lives. Penguin Press.
Steering Committee of the Physicians’ Health Study Research Group. 1989.
Final Report on the Aspirin Component of the Ongoing Physicians’ Health Study. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM198907203210301#t=article
Sterne, Jonathan A. C., and George Davey Smith. 2001.
“Sifting the Evidence — What’s Wrong with Significance Tests?” British Medical Journal 322(7280): 226–231. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1119478/
Stutzbach Enterprises. 2011.
The Prosecutor’s Fallacy. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140513232346/https://pokersleuth.com/prosecutor-fallacy.shtml
Sullivan, Michael. 2011.
Fundamentals of Statistics. 3d ed. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Tierney, John. 1991.
Behind Monty Hall’s Doors: Puzzle, Debate and Answer? Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.nytimes.com/1991/07/21/us/behind-monty-hall-s-doors-puzzle-debate-and-answer.html
Triola, Mario. 2011.
Elementary Statistics Using the TI-83/84 Plus Calculator. 3d ed. Addison-Wesley.
Turner, Ronald, et al. 2005.
“An Evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in Experimental Rhinovirus Infections”. New England Journal of Medicine 353(4): 341–348. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa044441
(Suggested by Michael Specter’s Denialism.)
Upton, Graham, and Ian Cook. 2008.
Oxford Dictionary of Statistics. Oxford University Press.
Velleman, Paul. 2005.
Confounding Variables. Retrieved 14 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20150102155343/https://mathforum.org/kb/message.jspa?messageID=4088352&start=120
Vickers, Andrew. 2010.
What Is a p-Value Anyway? 34 Stories to Help You Actually Understand Statistics. Addison-Wesley.
(My thanks to Erik Westwig for drawing this book to my attention.)
Virmani, Rajeev. 2012.
Confounding and Lurking Variables. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20141010183347/http://www.virmanimath.com/start-page-2012-2013/ap-stats-2012-2013/chapter-2/apstatonlineclass/confounding-and-lurking-variables
von Hippel, Paul T. 2005.
Mean, Median, and Skew: Correcting a Textbook Rule. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from http://jse.amstat.org/v13n2/vonhippel.html
Waner, Stefan, and Steven R. Costenoble. 1996.
Calculus Applied to Probability and Statistics. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20130618221901/https://people.hofstra.edu/Stefan_Waner/​RealWorld/cprob/cprob4.html
Welch, B. L. 1938.
The Significance of the Difference between Two Means When the Population Variances Are Unequal. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140803043236/https://www.stat.cmu.edu/~fienberg/Statistics36-756/Welch-Biometrika-1937.pdf (PDF)
What are my chances of being a victim of violent crime? 2010.
Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20150710145740/https://www.crimeinamerica.net/2010/12/13/what-are-my-chances-of-being-a-victim-of-violent-crime/
(The figure for males is 18.4 per thousand, versus 15.8 per thousand for females. Ignoring that there are more females than males in the population, the average figure is (18.4+15.8)/2 = 17.1 per thousand.)
Wheelan, Charles. 2013.
Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from the Data. Norton.
Young, Aaron, Humayun J. Chaudhry, Janelle Rhyne, and Michael Dugan. 2011.
A Census of Actively Licensed Physicians in the United States, 2010. Retrieved 16 Nov 2021 from https://web.archive.org/web/20140912192812/http://www.nationalahec.org/pdfs/​FSMBPhysicianCensus.pdf (PDF)

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